Uveitis (/ˌjuːvɪaɪtɪs/) is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea. The uvea consists of the middle layer of pigmented vascular structures of the eye and includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Uveitis is described anatomically, by the part of the eye affected, as anterior, intermediate or posterior, from front to back. In the panuveitic form, all parts are involved. The commonest is the anterior form. Symptoms include pain, floaters and blurred vision, and clinical examination may show redness and an irregular pupil, while opthalmic examination shows dilated ciliary blood vessels and the presence of cells in the anterior chamber. Uveitis may arise spontaneously and associated with some genetic factors, or be associated with a wide range of conditions including autoimmune disease and infections. While the eye is a relatively protected environment, its immune mechanisms may be overcome resulting in inflammation and tissue destruction associated with T-cell activation. The incidence is approximately 1:4500, most commonly between the ages of 20–60.
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